INDC stands for Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. It refers to the national documents handed in before COP21in Paris in 2015. Each nation created a plan of their intended emission reductions to create a global action plan. The result was the Paris Agreement.
The idea behind the INDCs was to raise the ambition to fight global warming. By having each nation suggest its possible commitments. Eventually, the INDCs became NDCs, namely nationally determined contributions. The change means that the documents became decisions rather than intentions.
The start of the INDC’s
Before COP21, the UN asked each nation to submit INDCs. As mentioned, these were non-binding documents that stated the intention and ambition of each country. The papers got used in the discussions leading up to the Paris Agreement. Eventually, as the Paris Agreement got ratified (made legally binding), the INDCs were transformed into NDCs. The countries that signed the Paris Agreement also agreed to update their NDCs every five years. To make more ambitious commitments with time.
EU’s climate action
In 2015, all the nations of the EU handed in a common INDC for COP21. This joint effort meant that all the countries agreed on the same emission reductions. Today, this commitment is closely related to the European Green Deal. The latter is a set of policies that strives to make the EU climate neutral by 2050. For example, it includes circular economy plans and a forest strategy. It also means that the countries are committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Another example of an INDC was the intentions of India. For example, INDC India committed to a reduction of CO2 of 33-35 % per capita by 2030. More so, they intended to reduce the use of fossil fuels for electricity by about 40 %. India also presented a plan to increase forests across its land. With the idea that the trees would contribute to absorbing high amounts of CO2 by 2030. Furthermore, INDC India’s plans counted on other nations’ financial support to afford the transition.
Finally, more nations in similar fragile states as India were counting on financial support for their INDCs. For instance, help from the private sector through a program known as the “NDC Support Programme” from the UNDP.