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INDC stands for Intended Nationally Determined Contribution. It refers to the national documents that were handed in before COP21 in Paris, in 2015. The INDC were the intended plan for each nation’s emission reductions. The material was eventually used to create the Paris Agreement. 

INDCs were intended national commitments that were used to negotiate a common and global action plan. This is why they were used as a basis for the Paris Agreement. The idea was to raise the ambition level to fight global warming. Today, these kinds of documents have changed the name to NDCs, nationally determined contributions. As they have become decisions rather than intentions. 

The start of the INDC’s

Before COP21, the UN asked each nation to submit INDCs. As mentioned, these were non-binding documents that stated the intention and ambition of each nation. These documents were used in the discussions that lead up to the Paris Agreement. Eventually, when the Paris Agreement was ratified (made legally binding) the INDCs were transformed into NDCs. The countries that signed the Paris Agreement also agreed to update their NDCs every five years. The idea was that their commitments would become stronger with time.

EUs climate action

In 2015, all the nations of the EU handed in a common INDC for COP21. This means that all the nations had agreed on the same intention of emission reductions. Today, this commitment is closely related to the European Green Deal. The latter is a set of policies that strives to make the EU climate neutral by 2050. For example, it includes circular economy plans and a forest strategy. It also means that the countries are committed to a serious reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

Indias INDC

Another example of an INDC was the intentions of India. For example, INDC India committed to a reduction of CO2 of 33-35 % per capita by 2030. More so, they stated an intention to reduce the use of fossil fuels for electricity by about 40 %. India also presented a plan to increase forests across its land. With the idea that the trees would contribute to absorbing high amounts of CO2 by 2030. Furthermore, the plans in INDC India counted on financial support from other nations to afford the transition.

Finally, more nations that were in similar fragile states as India were counting on financial support for their INDCs. For instance, support was expected from the private sector through a program called the “NDC Support Programme” from the UNDP.


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