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Conference of the Parties – COP – is the name of the yearly international meetings that focus on climate change. The purpose is to supervise and organise the efforts to fight global warming. The COP meetings have been arranged by the UN since 1995. More so, the participants are always the member countries of the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). Although other actors take part as well, usually as observers, but also as speakers and advisors.


To explain further, the first international agreement for the environment was the UNFCCC. It was established in 1992. UNFCCC is also the name that one uses to address the secretariat to the environmental deal. Among many things, it states that the industrialised countries should take more responsibility than developing nations, in the work to fight climate change. More so, UNFCCC can be seen as the foundation of all the environmental work organised by the UN.

The decision making body of the UNFCCC is the Conference of the Parties. As mentioned, they have been arranged since 1995. The Kyoto protocol and the Paris Agreement are both examples of the more concrete outcomes of these meetings.

Conference of the Parties meetings

The first COP meeting took part in Berlin in 1995. Naturally, it was called COP1. Since then, there has been 25 other meetings, with the 26th coming up in Glasgow, Scotland, in November 2021. Furthermore, one of the most famous meetings was COP21 in Paris in 2015. It is well known since it resulted the a huge international effort known as the Paris Agreement. Through this agreement, countries have decided that they aim to keep global warming below 2°C. A deal that requires enormous global and national efforts. For example, the burning of fossil fuels would have to be completely phased out in a rapid pace.


In relation to the Conference of the Parties, it is common to hear about CMP, Meeting of the Parties. This is a consequence of the meetings occurring at the same time. However, the CMP only includes the nations that have signed the Kyoto protocol. In short, the Kyoto protocol is the international agreement that came before the Paris Agreement. It came into force in 2005, which is when the parties met for the first time. Therefore, the first CMP, CMP1, occurred at  COP11 in Montreal, Canada. More so, the Kyoto protocol is one of the most important and historic global agreements about the climate. It states that global warming is occurring and that it has been caused by humans.

All the Conference of the Parties:

1995: COP 1, Berlin, Germany

1996: COP 2, Geneva, Switzerland

1997: COP 3, Kyoto, Japan

1998: COP 4, Buenos Aires, Argentina

1999: COP 5, Bonn, Germany

2000: COP 6, The Hague, Netherlands

2001: COP 6, Bonn, Germany

2001: COP 7, Marrakech, Morocco

2002: COP 8, New Delhi, India

2003: COP 9, Milan, Italy

2004: COP 10, Buenos Aires, Argentina

2005: COP 11/CMP 1, Montreal, Canada

2006: COP 12/CMP 2, Nairobi, Kenya

2007: COP 13/CMP 3, Bali, Indonesia

2008: COP 14/CMP 4, Poznań, Poland

2009: COP 15/CMP 5, Copenhagen, Denmark

2010: COP 16/CMP 6, Cancún, Mexico

2011: COP 17/CMP 7, Durban, South Africa

2012: COP 18/CMP 8, Doha, Qatar

2013: COP 19/CMP 9, Warsaw, Poland

2014: COP 20/CMP 10, Lima, Peru

2015: COP 21/CMP 11, Paris, France

2016: COP 22/CMP 12/CMA 1-1, Marrakech, Morocco

2017: COP 23/CMP 13/CMA 1-2, Bonn, Germany

2018: COP 24/CMP 14/CMA 1-3, Katowice, Poland

2019: COP 25/CMP 15/CMA 2, Madrid, Spain

2020: COP26 was supposed to take place in Glasgow, Scotland in 2020. However, it was moved to 2021 due to the Covid-19 pandemic.

2022: COP26, Glasgow, Scotland


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