Ocean storage refers to storing CO2 in the oceans. Some scientists advocate for this in, for example, the IPCC reports on climate change. It works by injecting CO2 into the oceans at great depths. As a way to remove it from the atmosphere. So far, researchers are investigating the technique. Although, it is difficult to determine the effect this could have on life in the ocean.
Ocean storage and climate change
Human emissions of greenhouse gases are causing climate change and global warming. These emissions have been going on since the industrial revolution. For example, the level of CO2 has increased by 45%. Hence we must stop emitting the gas. However, just stopping to emit CO2 will not be enough, as it stays in the atmosphere for 300-1000 years. Therefore, there is a need to remove the gas from the atmosphere. This reason is why scientists are discussing different carbon capture and storage techniques. One of the ideas is ocean storage.
How is the ocean used as a storage facility?
The oceans store CO2 naturally. They are some of the planet’s largest carbon sinks, storing about 25% of human emissions yearly. The higher amount of CO2 in oceans is already causing ocean acidification. This risks harming plants and other marine life. The current acidification is happening on the ocean’s surface.
The oceans cover over 70% of the Earth’s surface. They have an average depth of about 3.800 metres. Theoretically, there is no physical limit to how much CO2 could get stored there. Some scientists propose storing CO2 in the deep sea to avoid the effect on life at the ocean surface. However, the vast majority of the ocean floor remains unexplored. This lack of knowledge means that there are ecosystems and organisms there that humans are unaware of. Hence, ocean storage would come with great and unknown risks. More so, experiments show that an increase in CO2 can harm any marine organisms.
Mainly, the effects of injecting CO2 get studied on organisms living near the ocean surface. Among things, scientists have discovered reduced rates of reproduction and growth, also, increased mortality over time. Overall, the public appears critical or uncertain of ocean storage. Generally, because of the risk of harming marine life. Or the unknown chain reactions that an injection of CO2 could start.
Environmental activists point out that nature is fragile and that there are other ways to mitigate climate change. For example, CO2 is removed naturally by increasing forests. Finally, another common critique of technical carbon capture and storage ideas is that they allow people to emit more CO2. In other words, if CO2 is stored, industries can keep emitting it.